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        鄭板橋這樣畫《華封三祝》:寫來三祝乃三竹,畫出華封是兩峰

        2017-07-25 17:43:17

        來源: 中華國粹在線 作者: 艾華

        鄭板橋這樣畫《華封三祝》:

        寫來三祝乃三竹,畫出華封是兩峰

        文章來源_網絡

        古人以“華封三祝”祝愿人富貴、長壽和多男子。清代以來,書畫家們因稻粱謀而創作了不少具吉祥寓意的“華封三祝”圖。鄭板橋對這一主題的繪畫也保持著持久的熱度,其中除分別收藏于中國國家博物館、天津博物館、上海博物館與旅順博物館的精品,更有不少流傳于民間,雖真贗雜糅,或有精粗之別,但就其數量看,反映出收藏者對一主題追捧的程度。

        中國國家博物館藏鄭燮《華封三祝圖曲》局部

        “華封三祝”的典故來自《莊子·天地》。華封人祝愿圣人堯“使圣人富”、“使圣人壽”、“使圣人多男子”,但都被堯婉言謝絕。后來人們便以“華封三祝”祝愿人富貴、長壽和多男子。清代以來,“華封三祝”作為吉祥寓意的題材為畫家所追捧。常見的母題往往繪南天竹(南天竺)和兩種吉祥花卉(如牡丹、月季等),因“竹”與“祝”諧音,故在此主題中,“竹”是必不可少的元素。當然,也有純粹繪佛手、桃和石榴三種吉祥物的,因三者分別寓意富貴、長壽和多子,故有“三多”之喻,也常常稱作“華封三祝”。這樣的題材在清代中期商業文明較為發達的揚州地區較為盛行,因而在“揚州畫派”諸家中,多可見此類畫。

        鄭燮《華封三祝圖曲》,紙本墨筆,

        167.7x92.7厘米,中國國家博物館藏

        在辭官歸里、以鬻畫為生的“揚州畫派”代表作家鄭板橋(1693—1765)筆下常見到這種吉祥寓意的題材。中國國家博物館所藏其紙本墨筆、縱167.7厘米、橫92.7厘米的《華封三祝圖》,可稱得上是鄭板橋此類題材的扛鼎力作。有意思的是,他不以花卉與竹相搭配,而是直接以其最為擅長的竹石入畫,畫三竿墨竹佇立于兩座峭立的石峰前,構圖簡潔清晰,疏朗明快。如果單以畫面看,似乎與其常見的“竹石圖”并無二致。但鄭板橋在畫中題詩:“寫來三祝乃三竹,畫出華封是兩峰。總是人情真愛戴,人家羅拜主人翁”,為構圖畫龍點睛。

        因“竹”與“祝”、“峰”與“封”諧音,故“華封三祝”之意躍然紙上。作者款識曰:“乾隆壬午,板橋鄭燮”,鈐白文方印“鄭燮之印”和朱文隨形印“樗散”,另有朱文長方印“歌詠古揚州”。“乾隆壬午”為乾隆二十七年(1762年),時年鄭氏七十歲。在此畫之后的第三年,鄭板橋即歸道山。因此可以說,該畫算是其晚年的代表作,反映其人畫俱老、筆力遒勁的藝術面貌。印鑒中,“樗散”一詞源自《莊子》之《內篇·逍遙游》:“吾有大樹,人謂之樗。其大本擁腫而不中繩墨,其小枝卷曲而不中規矩,立之涂,匠者不顧。今子之言,大而無用,眾所同去也”,后人便以此比喻不為世用、投閑置散之意。鄭氏以此作為閑章,或可見其懷才不遇、不容于世的喟嘆與自況。

        清人秦祖永(1825—1884)在其《桐陰論畫》中認為鄭板橋“筆情縱逸,隨意揮灑,蒼勁絕倫”,這在該畫中便可看出這種特色。但秦祖永同時認為,“此老天資豪邁,橫涂豎抹,未免發越太盡,無含蓄之致”,這在鄭氏傳世的竹石、蘭花諸圖中,都可體現出來。因其題材單一,畫面出現程式化現象也就在所難免,故“無含蓄之致”也就在情理之中了。不過,秦祖永卻另有一番解析:“蓋由其易于落筆,未能以醞釀出之,故畫格雖超,而畫律猶粗也”,認為落筆容易而缺少成竹在胸的“醞釀”,因此畫筆粗率。在筆者看來,不僅如此,更重要的是鄭板橋畫債或應酬較多,作畫無數,也就乏精致之作,終究是與當時的文化語境相關。但就其傳世諸作來看,此《華封三祝圖》應算得上得意之作了。

        鄭燮《華封三祝圖》,紙本墨筆,170x90厘米,天津博物館藏

        無獨有偶,在其傳世竹石中,尚有另一件《華封三祝圖》(天津博物館藏)。該畫亦為紙本墨筆,縱170厘米、橫70厘米,與前述《華封三祝圖》的尺幅大致相當,但其畫面構圖則大為迥異。該圖所繪為五竿墨竹置于兩座石峰之前,墨竹參差,高低錯落。竹葉墨韻明凈,墨色互異。如果僅從繪畫語言看,是和華封三祝毫無關聯的。但作者在畫上的題識,則將其畫境升堂入室:“昔人畫華封三祝,一峰而已。茲益一峰,是增其壽也。三竹而已,茲益以二而為五,是增其福也。上天申錫,有加無已,蓋甚顯上令德之君子,有以致此也。乾隆丙子冬寫似章翁鄉祭酒年老長翁,有是德即有是福,豈不信然!板橋鄭燮”,鈐白文方印“鄭板橋”。他是在前人約定俗成的一峰三竹的構思中,增加一峰及兩竹,因“石”有“壽”之意,故為增壽;“竹”為“祝”,增加二竹而為五,故為增福。鄭板橋的這種反主流構圖,不僅毫無違和感,反而因其題詞作為注腳而使立意凸顯,與同類題材的畫作相比,自然因其創新意識而略勝一籌。從這個意義上講,其實在畫面上多加任何一座石峰和一竿墨竹,都有增壽增福之意,鄭板橋將本來已經模式化的構圖加以重新解構與解讀,使“華封三祝”這一主題在創作中增添了無限的可能性。這是鄭板橋的別具匠心處,或者也稱得上是其模式化創作的圓滑之處。從款識可知,該圖作于清乾隆二十一年(1756年),時年作者六十四歲,比前作早了六年,也是其晚年之作。

        因“華封三祝”的寓意明顯,無論身居廟堂之高的如云冠蓋,還是身處江湖之遠的販夫走卒,都會鐘愛此題,寄托人們的美好期許。所以,為了滿足不同層次受眾的審美需求,鄭板橋對這一主題的繪畫保持持久的熱度。據不完全統計,在公庫藏品之外,鄭板橋的《華封三祝圖》尚有近十件之多。雖然這些作品或真贗雜糅,也或有精粗之別,但就其數量看,反映出收藏者對一主題追捧的程度。而鄭板橋創作的多幅《華封三祝圖》也免不了有雷同之嫌。作為具有文學家身份的鄭板橋,往往在題詞和竹石的數量稍加變通,就使畫面重復的概率大為降低,如將“三竹”增為“六竹”,是為增福、將“一峰”增為“兩峰”,是為“南山雙峙”,亦為增壽,有時甚至直接題詩:“南山高迥欲參天,密條叢篁更燦然。欲識周姬年八百,太任太姒乙姜賢”,使福壽的意蘊突顯無遺。當然,所有這些努力,不外乎在于傳遞一種“福壽雙增,天眷愈加愈厚。惟修德不怠,日增月益者,庶足以當之”的理念,是在勸導民眾“修德不怠”,方能福壽齊增,這也正是中國畫傳統中“成教化,助人倫”思想的折射。


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