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        明清宮廷衣箱的鑒賞與修復

        2013-10-02 19:30:17

        來源: 《古典工藝家具》雜志 作者: 艾華

        圖1戰國黑漆朱繪星宿紋衣箱

        圖2《出警圖》中戎裝的萬歷皇帝

        圖3《出警圖》中的御用衣箱

          核心提示:衣箱在中國 起源較早,經歷近兩千年的演變,明代衣箱制作工藝發展到了新的水平。現存有的明清宮廷衣箱極具收藏價值。

          人物名片>>>

          朱寶力,1971年進入北京金漆鑲嵌廠,曾任修舊組負責人,2002年成立萬華堂明清漆藝工作室,現為中華文化促進會木作工作委員會委員。

          衣箱屬于大型的箱匣類家具,古人不僅用它貯藏衣物,也經常用它貯藏書籍、財寶等物品,在古代生活用具中占有十分重要的地位。衣箱在我國起源很早,1978年,湖北隨縣戰國曾侯乙墓出土了一件黑漆朱繪星宿紋衣箱(圖1),制作工藝已經比較成熟。它長71厘米,寬47厘米,高40.5厘米。造型為長方形,箱蓋拱形隆起,箱蓋、箱身的四角有把手,可以合在一起,箱蓋和箱身分別用整塊木料雕鑿而成,外表髹黑漆,繪有朱漆紋飾,非常精美。

          經歷了近兩千年的演變,明代的衣箱制作工藝發展到了新的水平,尤其是皇室貴族和官宦士大夫階層的衣箱,精美程度令人稱絕。帶有底座的衣箱是在明代才流行起來的,明早期的魯王朱檀墓中出土的箱子及箱子冥器都還沒有底座。明代宮廷寫實畫卷《出警圖》描繪了青年時期的萬歷皇帝(圖2)戎裝出行的盛大場面。在侍從隊伍中有一組人物很惹人注意,四名挑夫抬著一對朱漆帶底座衣箱(圖3),負責押運的太監身穿過肩蟒袍,配有專門打傘、背包的跟班,地位十分顯赫,從他關注的神情看,這對箱子里所貯藏的物品非同一般。該箱髹有明代皇家專用的朱紅大漆,通體戧金龍紋,極其華美。

        圖4 明代的朱漆戧金纏枝蓮龍紋御用衣箱

          明代的朱漆戧金纏枝蓮龍紋御用衣箱(圖4)就屬于畫中的這種御用衣箱,目前存世十分罕見。它長87厘米,寬56厘米,高61厘米。造型為長方形,箱蓋拱形隆起,箱體配有矮座,又名“車腳”,矮座的開光內設有四孔,以便穿繩搭抬。此箱以杉木制胎,杉木不易開裂變形,香氣具有抑菌驅蟲的功能,非常適合于制作箱櫥。樟木雖然亦可驅蟲,但明代的箱櫥很少有樟木材質的,因為明人認為婦女常聞樟木味道易于不孕和流產,箱櫥以杉木制作最為理想。此箱的制作是在箱體木胎上蒙薄牛皮,箱口釘一圈木條加固,箱底再套上木座,然后通體內外皆糊麻布,披灰并飽浸熟桐油,依次髹底漆、黃墊光漆和朱紅面漆,最后再清鉤戧金纏枝蓮龍紋,工藝極其繁難而又十分牢固。

          值得注意的是,在明代的宮廷檔案中記載有不少這類的朱漆皮箱,但如今存世實物卻幾乎都出現在民間。筆者推測,這應該與明末大順軍撤離北京時裝運財寶有關。當時大順軍搜掠明朝的皇宮大內和追拷明朝的貴戚高官獲得了一大筆財富,有多少個箱子也不夠用的。

          入清以后,由于統治階級的民族地域關系,衣箱的流行風格也發生了很大的變化。六面平、無底座的衣箱開始增多,長短尺寸的差異也變大了,適合于在炕上疊放。銅飾件的設計則突出如意圓滿的審美意趣,鎖插多為如意形,面葉常設圓形、菱花形及如意云頭形;箱側的提手兩端向內彎曲,以求風格與面葉協調,而這種提手在明代時一般只用在抽屜和小型的箱匣上。

        圖5 修復前的黃地彩繪戧金龍鳳紋衣箱


        圖6 衣箱的左側


        圖7衣箱的右側

          另有黃地彩繪戧金龍鳳紋衣箱(圖5~圖11),長88厘米,寬67厘米,高37厘米。其正面和上頂的紋飾為云龍紋,正面是二龍戲珠,下襯海水江崖,上頂是一條團龍,龍紋皆為五爪真龍;兩側的紋飾為鳳穿牡丹和旭日高升。從紋飾等級和工藝水平看,此箱無疑原屬清宮御用之物,早年流落民間,現為北京古玩收藏家廣漢堂主人所珍藏。

          上個世紀90年代,我在修復一件朱地描金罩漆纏枝蓮龍紋的扁長皮箱時,曾經見過這件黃地彩繪戧金龍鳳紋衣箱一眼。兩者雖然都達到宮廷器物等級,但前者是杭州制作的貢器,而此箱則是京城造辦處制作,刁填也要費工一些,因此更為貴重。此箱的磕碰比較嚴重,箱蓋散架,所幸主體紋飾基本完整,鎏金鏨花的銅飾件都是原物,只是缺失了面葉的下半部。

          此箱以杉木制胎,內外皆糊麻布披灰,除反底為黑漆外,通體髹涂黃漆,五面皆有紋飾。其紋飾工藝與明代宮廷常用的填漆戧金工藝不同,是先彩繪圖案,再戧劃輪廓及紋理,然后在戧紋內貼金,工藝學名“戧金細鉤描漆”,通俗稱為“彩繪戧金”或者“彩繪雕填”。在箱體的五面紋飾中,只有后背的一株蘭花為單純彩繪,沒有做雕填戧金。

          此箱的側臉龍紋為散發、垂眉、蝦眼、長須、獅鼻,均符合康熙中期以后的宮廷龍紋特征,唯下頜的長出不是特別明顯,清代風格的龍紋造型已經比較成熟完美,應為康熙晚期至雍正年間制作。與康熙皇帝晚年畫像中的龍紋對比十分相近,應為清朝康熙晚期至雍正年間制作。

        圖12 清洗、刮灰后的衣箱正面


        圖13 清洗、刮灰后的衣箱左側


        圖14 清洗、刮灰后的衣箱右側

          由于黃漆家具的修復難度較大,此箱的規格又很高,所以我用了很長時間和很大的精力才修理完畢,藏品的主人非常滿意,修復的過程和效果如圖(圖12~圖24)。在修復過程中,我觀察到一個細節,衣箱除了后背以外,各面都有一道紫黑色的紋飾邊框,寬度均為10毫米,唯有上頂的前后兩條邊框各寬12毫米。起初我以為是手工活的誤差,等到補完色漆后站在衣箱前面打量時,上頂四條邊框的寬度給我的視覺是一致的,如果各邊都寬10毫米的話,前后兩條邊框在視覺上的感受倒會覺得窄了些。細節雖小,亦可窺見古代宮廷匠師高超的藝術素養,實在令人佩服。

          綜合分析,這件黃地彩繪戧金龍鳳紋衣箱是一件十分珍貴的清前期宮廷家具,如此清晰透明的身世,使其更會成為明清家具收藏研究與投資領域里的一顆璀璨明珠。


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