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        漢魏兩晉南北朝——茶文化的醞釀
        2013-06-12 18:28:12 來源: 作者: 【 】 瀏覽:784次 評論:0

         

         茶是因作為飲料而馳名的,茶文化實質上是飲茶文化,是飲茶活動過程中形成的文化現象。茶文化的產生是在茶被用作飲用之后,兩晉南北朝是中華茶文化的醞釀時期。 

            
        1)飲茶的起源和發展 

          茶最先是作為食用和藥用的,飲用是在食用、藥用的基礎上形成的。中國人利用茶的年代久遠,可上溯到神農時期,但飲茶的歷史相對要晚一些。先秦時期可能在局部地區(茶樹原產地及其邊緣地區)已有飲茶,但目前還缺乏文字和考古的支持。 

            (
        飲茶始于西漢 

            
        關于飲茶的起源,到目前為止是眾說紛壇,爭議未定。大致說來,有先秦說、西漢說、三國說、魏晉說

            1
        、先秦說

            
        陸羽根據《神農食經》“茶茗久服,令人有力悅志”的記載,認為飲茶始于神農時代,“茶之為飲,發乎神農氏”。(《茶經·六之飲》)神農即炎帝,與黃帝同為中國上古都部落首領。然而《神農食經》據今人考證成書在漢代以后飲用始于上古原始社會只是傳說,不是信史。 清人顧炎武認為,“自秦人取蜀而后,始有茗飲之事”(《日知錄·茶》)顧炎武認為飲茶始于戰國時代也只是推測,并無直接的證據。先秦飲茶,不是源于傳說,就是間接推測,并無可靠材料來證明。 

            2
        、三國說

            
        《三國志·吳書·韋曜傳》有“密賜荼荈以代酒”,這種能代酒的飲料當為茶飲料,足以證明吳國宮廷已經飲茶。據此,《南窗紀談》認為中國飲茶始于三國。 三國時代東吳飲茶是確鑿無疑,然而東吳之茶當傳自巴蜀,巴蜀的飲茶要早于東吳,因此,中國的飲茶一定早于三國時代。 
            3
        、魏晉說

            
        唐裴汶《茶論》、《膳夫經手錄》認為飲茶始于晉,宋《集古錄》認為飲茶始于魏晉。 

            4
        、西漢說:  清代郝懿行在《證俗文》中指出:“茗飲之法,始見于漢末,而已萌芽于前漢。司馬相如凡將篇有荈詫,王褒僮約有武陽買荼。”郝懿行認為飲茶始于東漢末,而萌芽于西漢。 

            
        西漢著名辭賦家王褒《僮約》“烹荼盡具”的約定,是關于飲茶最早的可信記載。《僮約》中有“烹荼盡具”、“武陽買荼”,一般都認為“烹荼”、“買荼”之“荼”為茶。《僮約》訂于兩漢宣帝神爵三年(公元前59年),故中國人飲茶不會晚于公元前一世紀中葉的西漢晚期。我們認為中國的飲茶始于西漢,而飲茶晚于茶的食用、藥用,中國人發現茶和用茶則遠在西漢以前,甚至可以追溯到商周時期。 

            
        王褒是四川資中人,買茶之地為四川彭山。最早對茶有過記載的王褒、司馬相如、揚雄均是蜀人,可見是巴蜀之人發明飲茶。 

            
        從兩漢到三國,在巴蜀之外,茶是供上層社會享用的珍稀之物,飲茶限于王公朝士。《三國志·吳志·韋曜》記:“曜飲酒不過二升。皓初禮異,密賜荼荈以代酒。”孫皓密賜韋曜以茶代酒,可見東吳宮中飲茶。 

            
        西晉詩人張載《登成都白菟樓》詩云:“芳荼冠六清,溢味播九區。”說成都的香茶傳遍九州,這雖有文人的夸張,卻也近于事實。《桐君錄》記:“西陽、武昌、廬江、晉陵皆出好茗。巴東別有真香茗。”晉陶潛《搜神后記》:“晉孝武世,宣城人秦精,常入武昌山中采茗。”晉王浮《神異記》:“余姚人虞洪入山采茗。”說明在兩晉時期,湖北、安徽、江蘇、浙江這些地區已產茶。 

            
        兩晉時期,飲茶由上層社會逐漸向中下層傳播。晉干寶《搜神記》:“夏侯愷字萬仁,因病死,……如坐生時西壁大床,就人覓荼飲。”這雖是虛構的神異故事,但也反映普通人家的飲茶事實。《廣陵嗜老傳》:“晉元帝時有老姥,每旦獨提一器茗,往市鬻之,市人竟買。”老姥每天早晨到街市賣茶,市民爭相購買,這反映平民的飲茶風尚。 

            
        南朝宋人山謙之《吳興統記》載:“烏程 溫山,出御荈”“長興 啄木岑,每歲吳興、毘陵二郡太守采茶宴會于此,有境會亭。”烏程溫山產貢茶,長興縣有境會亭,兩郡太守在此宴集,督造茶葉。江南一帶不僅飲茶,茶葉生產也有一定的規模。《南齊書·武帝本紀》:“我靈上慎勿以牲為祭,唯設餅、荼飲、干飯、酒脯而已,天下貴賤,咸同此制。”南朝齊武帝詔告天下,靈前祭品設茶等四樣,不論貴賤,一概如此。可見茶已進入尋常百姓家中。 

            
        后魏楊衒之《洛陽伽藍記》卷三城南報德寺:“肅初入國,不食羊肉及酪槳,常飯鯽魚羹,渴飲茗汁。……時給事中劉鎬,慕肅之風,專習茗飲。”北朝人原本渴飲酪槳,但受南朝人的影響,如劉鎬等,也喜歡上飲茶。 

            
        飲茶始于西漢,起源于巴蜀,經東漢、三國、兩晉、南北朝,逐漸向中原廣大地區傳播,飲茶由上層社會向民間發展,飲茶、種茶的地區越來越廣。

        Tags:漢魏 兩晉 南北朝 茶文化 醞釀 責任編輯:品茶論道
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