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        北宋山水畫三大主要流派
        2013-06-11 17:48:46 來源: 作者: 【 】 瀏覽:723次 評論:0

         

         

            北宋南北兩大山水畫派中的李成、范寬、董源以不同的畫風和卓越的貢獻,創立了當時三大主要流派。

         

            荊浩雖然開創了北宋北派畫派,并著有經典的《筆法記》,對山水畫作出了杰出的貢獻,然而,荊浩,包括關仝、李成在內則沒有一幅作品傳下來。我們從實際的記載中和后人的有關摹本可以了解到,荊、關、李三人中,起決定性的是李成。

         

            米芾曾云:“李成真見兩本,偽是三百本。”可見李成的影響是巨大的。他畫的水墨山水,善用淡墨的情韻,體現山水的靈秀,展現的是文秀的一路。米芾又談到:“李成淡墨如夢霧中,石如山動。”李成創造了“卷云皴”,他的作品雖沒有留下,但從師承李成的郭熙的畫中可以看到卷云皴的表現形式。“卷云皴”是最早也是影響最深遠的山水畫皴法之一。

         

            北宋另一主要流派山水畫家是范寬。范寬與李成雖然是北方流派,但是與李成有很大的不同。他的畫體現的是壯武的風采,王詵將他與李成比較,稱之為“一文一武。”范寬傳世的作品有《溪山行旅圖》、《雪景寒林圖》等。他畫山水,強調主峰突出,要占三分之二的畫面。以一種雄偉峻厚的氣勢,顯示一種咄咄逼人的威嚴。同時,范寬又十分重視具體景物深入細致的刻畫,精心經營山坳深壑中的飛瀑流泉和山巒的頂端密密層層的樹木。特別是正面的山體以稠密的小筆,皴出山石巨峰的質與骨。這種皴法便是后人所稱的“釘頭皴”或“雨點皴”,稍大一點的被稱為“豆瓣皴”。

         

            與北派兩家對峙的便是以董源為代表的江南山水派。董源筆下描繪的是江南景區。米芾對他也有很高的評價:“平淡天真,唐無此品,在畢宏上。”《夏山圖卷》等便是他的代表作。董源最大的成功之一是創造了最能表現江南山石形質的皴法“披麻皴”同時他又十分講究淡墨的渲染,使湖山增強了濕潤的感覺。最后他還用點來豐富表現手法,重重疊疊的點,使江南的湖光山色增添了郁郁蔥蔥的感覺。

         

            董源的繼承者有巨然。巨然山水在董源的基礎上開創了“長披麻皴”,然后再以焦墨破筆點苔。濃點淡皴,更顯得氣格秀潤,墨彩騰發。由于北宋三大主要流派的爭奇斗艷,使中國的水墨山水畫,形成耀古開今的局面。

        Tags:北宋 山水畫 三大 主要 流派 責任編輯:admin
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