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        “相對克隆”成品辨識:書畫“摹古”造假法
        2013-06-10 18:14:08 來源: 作者: 【 】 瀏覽:649次 評論:0

         

         

          在談及書畫“摹古”造假法形成原因時我曾說過,有些名家有“崇古”癖好,他們把摹仿前輩某名家某技法或某具體作品“像”的程度視作是自己藝術創作能力“高”的體現,而(同時期)社會上也有“持同樣觀點”的鑒藏人專門熱衷于收藏這類型作品。所以,從古到今,一方面市面上客觀存在有這么一種類型名家作品,另一方面作偽者就專門“絕對克隆”這種類型書畫。

          具體說,作偽人會精心挑選“合適”的母本(原作或影印件皆可),然后不做任何變動地將其一五一十地復制出來。在古代書畫名家中,遠的如宋、元時期的就不說了,稍近期的如明代的沈周、文徵明、唐寅、董其昌與清代大小“四王”等等畫家。他們真正意義上的“摹古”真跡比較多,“絕對克隆”型偽成品也不少。而現代書畫名家張大千、吳湖帆、陸儼少與陸抑非等,他們個個都是身懷絕技的“摹古”能手,故現在署他們名的作品,有的真有的假,確實給許多鑒藏人帶來了辨別困惑。

          在此,我還要特別強調一點,“摹古”與“絕對克隆”本身是二種具有不同作偽理念的書畫造假手法,且欺騙性都較強。如今它們作了“互補”式的融合,因此,必是“難”上加“難”于鑒定的書畫偽制。此外,作偽人在選用母本時一定不會是隨隨便便的,而是會充分考慮到“隱蔽”因素,這樣偽成品才不易被看穿或被懷疑。比如,母本原作被出版或收藏在海外的,偽成品就可能拋售在大陸;或反之,母本原作出版在大陸的,偽成品也許就拋售到海外。還有,所選取的母本原作若是在出版物中的,其出版多半是距作偽時比較久的。

          2002年秋季南方某拍賣行舉辦的拍品預展有圖一這件署名“張大千”號稱是“摹明代唐寅本”的畫作。一眼望去,此畫似乎從整體到局部都具有張大千“摹古”型手筆的特點,尤其是畫作上部的二處(或說二種類型)字體及大小不一致的款字不僅“像”,而且字數還特別多,儼然較具“殺傷力”。不過我還是出于“職業習慣”專門針對此畫去查閱了有關張大千作品的資料,結果終于將圖一的母本圖二給“請”了出來來“作證”。比較兩圖,我認為它們基本是“難分彼此”,只是圖一畫面的點、線、面筆勢稍顯生硬些,有些“做”的跡象,但這些若不是經“貨與貨”的對照是很難被“明確”的。目睹這一真一疑偽畫作,我不能不嘆服當今書畫造假水平之“高超”、其手段之狡詐。

          客觀說,辨識“摹古”造假法之“絕對克隆”型成品對我們挑戰不小,只有鑒定者具備以下幾項條件,把握才相對會大些:一是對傳統書畫的筆墨源流與代表性書畫家及其經典作品有較深入的了解與認識;二是對書畫作品中的筆墨與造型特點與質量有較敏銳的感知判斷能力,能做到明察秋毫,不放過任何蛛絲馬跡;三是對被鑒定當局名家的從藝生涯及各時期的創作特點(包括不同的作品類型)較為熟悉;四是平對在鑒藏活動中能博覽群書(也指個人收集在手中的可用資料多),實戰經驗豐富,“鑒藏視野”開闊,與海內外鑒藏界交流較頻繁。

        Tags:相對 克隆 成品 辨識 書畫 摹古 造假 責任編輯:欣欣
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